When parents break up, they don't always agree on who will have custody of the children. If they ask a judge to decide, what will the decision be based on?
Factors Judges Use When Deciding Custody
The most important factor in deciding who gets custody is the best interests of each child.
To find out what is in a child's best interest, judges consider these factors, among others:
- children's ages
- needs of the children
- each parent's ability to meet the children's needs
- relationship between the children and each parent
- relationship between the children and other family members
- keeping stability in children's lives
- children's physical and mental health
- physical and mental health of the parent who wants custody
- time each parent has available to spend with the children
- lifestyles of each parent, if this has a direct impact on children
- situation of the brothers and sisters, and keeping all the children together if possible
- willingness of each parent to help the children have a good relationship with the other parent
- preferences of the children
Some Factors Judges Don't Use When Deciding Custody
The judge doesn’t take these factors into account when deciding which parent gets custody:
- whether parents are living with new partners or have remarried
- parents’ sexual orientation
- previous actions of one parent concerning the other (for example, adultery)
- parents’ cultural background
However, the judge can keep these factors in mind if they affect the children’s best interests. For example, the judge can take into account the fact that one of the parents had been violent towards the other in the past.
Types of Custody
Judges must decide which type of custody is in the best interest of the children, given all of the circumstances. These are the two types of custody:
- joint custody
- sole custody, with or without visiting rights
Joint custody is sometimes called shared custody. This is when a child spends between 40% and 60% of the time with each parent, that is, between 146 and 219 days each year.
Sole custody is when a child spends more than 60% of the time with only one parent, that is, more than 219 days each year.
TYPE OF CUSTODY
TIME CHILD SPENDS WITH PARENTS
between 40% and 60% with each parent
more than 60% with only one parent
In these cases, the judge can give visiting rights to the other parent. These rights let the other parent have contact with the child, even if this parent does not have custody.
Joint Custody Versus Sole Custody
Judges cannot favour one type of custody over another. When deciding on custody arrangements, they must always determine what's in the best interests of the children in the circumstances.
There is no one-size-fits-all custody arrangement. Why? Because each child is different, with different needs and different situations.
For joint custody to be in the best interests of a child, both parents must
- be able to give the child the stability he or she needs to develop properly,
- be able to take care of the child,
- communicate with each other without arguing, and
- live close to each other.
This article explains in a general way the law that applies in Quebec. This article is not a legal opinion or legal advice. To find out the specific rules for your situation, consult a lawyer or notary.